504 Essential Words

excel-գերազանցել

Many top athletes are perfectionists who drive themselves to excel.
feminine-կանացի

It was impossible to resist her feminine wiles.
mount-լեռ

The debts are mounting.
compete-մրցակցել

If you hesitate, you may lose the opportunity to compete altogether.
dread-վախ

I dread to think what would happen if she came earlier.
masculine-առնական

They’re nice curtains, but I’d prefer something a little more masculine.
menace-սպառնալիք

The elephants are still menaced by poachers.
tendency-միտում

She has a tendency to labor the obvious.
underestimate-թերագնահատում

Never underestimate the importance of a good education.

Grammar

A

1.    You look really great!  Have you been working out at the fitness center recently? 
2. A: What were you doing when the accident occurred? 
    B: I  was trying to change a light bulb that had burnt out. 

3. I  have had the same car for more than ten years. I’m thinking about buying a new one. 

4. If it  snows this weekend, we  are going to go skiing near Lake Tahoe. 

5. A: What do you call people who work in libraries? 
    B: They  are called librarians. 

6. I came to England six months ago. I started my economics course three months ago. When I return to      Australia, I will have been studying for nine months and I  will have been in England for exactly one year. 

7. Sam  arrived in San Diego a week ago. 

8. Samantha  lived in Berlin for more than two years. In fact, she  was living there when the Berlin wall came down. 

9. If Vera  keeps drinking, she will eventually lose her job. 

10. The Maya established a very advanced civilization in the jungles of the Yucatan; however, their culture  had virtually disappeared by the time Europeans first  arrived in the New World. 

11. Shhhhh! Be quiet! John  is sleeping

12. It  has been raining all week. I hope it stops by Saturday because I want to go to the beach. 

13. Listen Donna, I don’t care if you  missed the bus this morning. You have been late to work too many times. You are fired! 

14. I am sick of rain and bad weather! Hopefully, when we  wake up tomorrow morning, the sun  will be shining

15. I have not traveled much yet; however, I  will have visited the Grand Canyon and San Francisco by the time I leave the United States. 

16. I had seen many pictures of the pyramids before I went to Egypt. Pictures of the monuments are very misleading. The pyramids are actually quite small. 

17. In the last hundred years, traveling has become much easier and very comfortable. In the 19th century, it  took two or three months to cross North America by covered wagon. The trip  was very rough and often dangerous. Things  have changed a great deal in the last hundred and fifty years. Now you can fly from New York to Los Angeles in a matter of hours. 

18. Joseph’s English  is really improving, isn’t it? He  has been watching American television programs and  studying his grammar every day since he first arrived in San Diego. Soon he will be totally fluent. 

19. When I  arrived home last night, I discovered that Jane  had prepared a beautiful candlelight dinner. 
20. If you  need to contact me sometime next week, I  will be staying at the Sheraton in San Francisco.

B

1. Nate deserved to win the prize for writing that amazing short story about traveling through Peru. I don’t understand his not receiving the award.

2. I can’t believe you wanted to gofishing, and you forgot to bring a fishing pole. How did you expect to catch any fish? Were you just going to sit in the river tryingto catch fish with your bare hands? You would have had a hard time doing that!

3. Vince is determined to save enough money to travel to South Africa next year. If he avoids wasting his money and manages to save what he needs to make the trip, he plans on leaving in June.

4. When Sam mentioned wantingto goswimming, Nina warned him not to go into the river. She explained that the national park did not allow visitors to swim for several reasons. The number one reason for not permitting visitors to swim was the large number of crocodiles in the park.

5. The Oscar-winning actor avoids talking to his fans and refuses to give his autograph. Moreover, he has difficulty giving interviews and appears to have problems interactingwith other people. Doesn’t he seem way too shy to be an actor?

6. Simone and Michael discussed going to Tahiti on their honeymoon, but they had very different opinions about visiting such an expensive destination. Michael said that after such a costly wedding, he couldn’t see spending so much money on a vacation. Simone defended their going to Tahiti by arguing that a honeymoon is a once in a lifetime experience.

7. Using a search engine to look things up on the Internet is a skill that all students need to learn. That is why the government is urging schools to beginteaching basic computer skills in elementary school. Schools also encourage parents to reinforce these skills at home by surfing the Internet together with their children.

8. Samantha kept having problems with her computer at work. Her co-worker Denise suggested shutting down the computer and restarting it to see if that would solve the problem.

9. Jack’s interest in learning foreign languages is a major factor in his decision to move to China. One of his life-long goals is to learnto speak Chinese fluently. Learning Chinese will be quite a challenge, but living in China should enable him to achieve his goal of mastering the language more quickly.

10. Simon’s attempts to find accommodation in Paris were not very successful. He tried calling every hotel in his guidebook, but he was shocked to discover they were all full. He called all the youth hostels to find out if they had any beds, but they were full, too. Another traveler advised him to go to the tourist information office to ask for help, but the office was closed. Although Simon hated the idea of leaving Paris without having seen anything, the thought of sleeping in the train station or walking the streets all night convinced him to take the train to another city to look for accommodation there.

Tourism in Britain

Tourism is already Britain’s fifth most important industry and it is also the fifth largest tourist industry in the world. It’s growing RAPIDLY: the number of people employed in the industry increased by more than 50,000 a year.

Britain has a rich and varied cultural heritage. COLOURFUL royal ceremonies attract millions of visitors each year.

 London has an international reputation for its historic sites, museums and famous institutions. A city of infinite colour and VARIETY, London is both historic and unceasingly modern, at the forefront of fashion, music and art.

Historic cities such as Oxford, Cambridge and Bath are visited by large numbers of FOREIGNERS.

People who travel to Scotland, the Lake District and other areas of upland Britain find unique EXCITING places and scenery which can vary over short distances.

 Some of the most popular ATTRACTIONS outside London are the Jorvik Viking Centre in York, the Tudor ship in Portsmouth and National museum of Photography in Bradford

My and your archaeological trip to…..

Written by Margarita Karakhanyan

While you are reading this story, you can’t even imagine how long I have been thinking about which country to write about. Georgia? I’m sure you’ve all been there at least once…maybe Greece? Where I was 7 years ago?

And I stopped here .Then I realized, I didn’t have enough memories to present you as vividly as it’s possible. I don’t have photos, that allow me to have today’s super-powerful smartphone cameras(I actually have it, but it’s just on one of the unknown pages of the family archive photo album, which will take me a century to dig). I’m thinking of something more interesting. Today, we will become extreme archaeologists who are not afraid of discovering the forbidden islands of the world. Is your suitcase ready? Let’s go. We’re going to a long way on our own plane. We arrived. What an amazing vegetation. Trees, bushes, grass and nothing else is visible. You immediately took out your phone and archaeological camera.You took some photos , pulling and forcing me to make silly faces. We were walking. Be careful! I barely pulled you away from a snake bite. If you keep walking so carelessly and go on shooting videos, we won’t get out of here. Soon my gaze was drawn to a horrible sight. Thousands of snakes, wrapped in each other, formed a barrier. While you were looking at your photos, I couldn’t speak, move, couldn’t even show what I had seen. Finally, I got back to life and grabbed your arm. You noticed it too. Instead of running away, we were staring at them. Finally, the mental factor worked and we ran so hard that for a moment it seemed to me, we were not archaeologists, but professional runners. We hardly escaped. We had to listen to the people on the plane until the end and more carefully …

Now we are going to Venice. We have heard about a no-name island. It is said that people who survived the epidemic decades ago settled here. A mental hospital was built on the same island for people with mental health problems who complained of headaches, insisted on the presence of ghosts. The doctor did not believe and continued his terrifying experiments on patients. We have arrived. At first glance, everything is fine. Anyway, it seems so. The doors are so old that when you decided to open one of them, it just shatters.You put some pieces into a special file, which you find on the floor, incomprehensible relics and a bone. Over the years, it hasn’t broken down. We will examine it later in our laboratory.

According to your suggestion, we go to Bouvet. You told me that Bouven is the most unheard area in the world, where had never been a human being. We are going to break the last rule. We have arrived. We saw a boat. Who brought it? Where did it come from? There was nothing suspicious on the boat. In that case… we’ll find it out.

Italy? What do you think? No tourists are indifferent to the island of Gayola. The locals are terrified and never visit this island. Why? The owners of this villa die one after the other. The first owner, Hans Brown, died of an unknown cause, after which the woman drowned. The next owner committed suicide, the other had a serious disease and so on. Hearing all this, a man bought a villa but decided never to set foot. However, the curse did not go away. His nephew and son died. From that day on, the island was sold to the country. You and I admired sunny Italy, the sculptures and paintings of the island.

Our final destination will be Yemen. We will rest here. We will get rid of the mystique of past travels and return to Armenia.

We have arrived. It will be a little bit hard going from here.Your feet are burning from the white and warm sand, and you make very funny movements. The water is very warm, pleasant. We are swimming in endless waters, enjoying exotic fruits. We hold the pendulum hanging from the coconut tree for hours, touching the surface of the water with our feet. We are looking through our photos and thanks to God we are still alive. But it’s time to go …

We are already in Armenia. There are no cursed islands here,  barriers from snakes… It’s time to work. Now we have to do an archaeological investigation of the samples and photos we have collected, which you, unfortunately, have forgotten in one of the villas in Yemen.

Reported Speech

Questions Forms 

 Revision

“He works in a bank”
She said that he worked in a bank.
2. “We went out last night”
 She said that they had gone out the night before.
3. “I’m coming!”
She said that she was coming.
4. “I was waiting for the bus when he arrived”
 She said that she was waiting for the bus when he arrived 
5. “ I’d never been there before”
 She said that she had never been there before.
6. “I didn’t go to the party”
She told me that she hadn’t gone to the party.
7. “Lucy’ll come later”
She said that Lucy would come later.
8. “He hasn’t eaten breakfast”
She told me that he hadn’t eaten breakfast.
9. “I can help you tomorrow”
She said that she could help me the following day.
10. “You should go to bed early”
She told me that I should go to bed early.
11. “I don’t like chocolate”
She told me that she didn’t like chocolate. 
12. “I won’t see you tomorrow”
She said that she wouldn’t see me the following day.
13. “She’s living in Paris for a few months”
She said that she was living in Paris for a few months.
14. “I visited my parents at the weekend”
She told me that she had visited her parents at the weekend. 
15. “She hasn’t eaten sushi before”
She said she hadn’t eaten sushi before.
16. “I hadn’t travelled by underground before I came to London”
She said that she hadn’t travelled by underground before she came to London.
17. “They would help if they could”
She said that they would help if they could.
18. “I’ll do the washing-up later”
She told me that she would do the washing-up later.
“He could read when he was three”
She said  that he could read when he was three.
20. “I was sleeping when Julie called”
She said that she was sleeping when Jilie called.

Reported Speech Questions 
1. “Where is he?”
She asked me where he was.
2. “What are you doing?”
She asked me what I was doing.
3. “Why did you go out last night?”
She asked me why I had gone out the night before.
4.“Who was that beautiful woman?”
She asked me who that beautiful woman had been.
5. “How is your mother?”
She asked me how my mother was.
6. “What are you going to do at the weekend?”
She asked me what I was going to do at the weekend.
7. “Where will you live after graduation?”
She asked me where I would live after graduation.
8. “What were you doing when I saw you?”
She asked me what I was doing when she saw me
9. “How was the journey?”
She asked me how the journey was .
10. “How often do you go to the cinema?”
She asked me how often I went to the cinema.
11. “Do you live in London?”
She asked me if I lived in London.
12. “Did he arrive on time?”
She asked me if he had arrived on time.
13. “Have you been to Paris?”
She asked me if I had been to Paris.
14. “Can you help me?”
She asked me if I could help her.
15. “Are you working tonight?”
She asked me if I was working that night.
16. “Will you come later?”
She asked me if I would come later.
17. “Do you like coffee?”
She asked me if I liked coffee.
18. “Is this the road to the station?”
She asked me if this was the road to the station.
19. “Did you do your homework?”
She asked me if I had done my homework.
20. “Have you studied reported speech before?”
She asked me if I had studied reported speech before.

Art for Heart’s Sake

If you want to read

1.Why  was Ellsworth  under the care of  a doctor?

He had had a heart attack.He had to be prevented from buying things

2.Was Ellsworth a very wealthy or  a very poor man?

He was very wealthy.

3.Had  his recent business operations  been very successful or  very  unsuccessful?

Those various business operations were successful,but they left effects.

4.How  had these business operations affected his health?

His health had begun to show serious effects from these various business operations.

5.Why did Dr. Caswell suggest that Mr. Ellsworth  take up art?

I think that was for checking his opportunities and brain’s state.

6.Did MR. ELLsworth’s interest  in art  grow or lesson?

Mr.Ellsworth got more and more interested,he was trying his best and was very excited .

7.Instead of going to his office  where did MR. Ellsworth  now begin to go with Swain?

The doctor thought it safe to allow Ellsworth to visit the Metropolitan Museum, the Museum of Modern Art, and other exhibitions with Swain.

8.Did  MR. Ellsworth  choose  a well-known  or  a little known  gallery in which  to exhibit his pictures” Treess  Dressed  in White”?

His pictures »Treess Dressed in White» were in Lathrop Gallery,which was the biggest art exhibition of the year—in quality, if not in size. 

9.What message did  a special  messenger  bring one day?

There was …It gives the Lathrop Gallery great pleasure to announce that the First Prize of $1,000 had been awarded to Collis P. Ellsworth for his painting, «Trees Dresses in White.»

10.By what means had Mr. Ellsworth assured himself of winning this   prize?

He said that art had nothing to do with it, he had bought the Lathrop Gallery a month before.

Reading

Read the text and match the titles with the paragraphs

  1. National language
  2. Freedom of media
  3. Customs and traditions
  4. Public transport
  5. Geography
  6. Leisure and sport
  7. Modern history
  8. Economic outlook

A. Lithuania is situated on the eastern Baltic coast and borders Latvia in the north, the Kaliningrad region of the Russian Federation and Poland in the southwest, and Belarus in the southwest and east. The geometrical centre of Europe lies in eastern Lithuania 25km north of its capital Vilnius. The landscape varies between lowland plains and hilly uplands and has a complex network of rivers.

B. Lithuania has historically been the least developed of the Baltic republics, with a smaller industrial base and greater dependence on agriculture. Sugar beet, cereals, potatoes and vegetables are the main crops. Lithuania’s foreign trade was gradually changing during the 1990s, and now the European Union, not Russia, is its main trading partner.

C. Lithuanian is the mother tongue for 80% of the population. After the country joined the European Union in 2004 this language has become one of the EU official languages. Lithuania has a large number of dialects for such a small territory, including High Lithuanian and Low Lithuanian.

D. Lithuania offers different opportunities for a nice vacation. You can explore a range of large sand dunes and pine forests while hiking in the Curonian Spit National Park, take part in some action sports in Nida, a village that makes a true paradise for sailing, windsurfing, paragliding and kiting, or try out more extreme sports, such as hot-air ballooning and gliding.

E. Those who are interested in folklore may enjoy their stay in Lithuania in any season of the year. The Mardi Gras celebrations are held in various Lithuanian cities and small towns at the beginning of February. The Folklore Festival is held in Vilnius’ Old Town during in May. There you can see craft fairs, taste traditional dishes, join song and parties and listen to psalms.

F. Lithuania’s TV market is dominated by commercial channels. The radio market is similarly competitive. Lithuania’s media are free and operate independently of the state, and there are no government-owned newspapers. However, politicians do occasionally attempt to influence editorial policy.

G. In cities and towns there are buses and trolleybuses, which usually run from 05.00 to 23.00, but times do vary between routes. You can’t pay the fare to the driver in cash but you can buy coupons from him. Coupons can be also bought at news kiosks before boarding. Minibuses are less crowded but more expensive.

  • A−5
  • B−8
  • C-1
  • D-6
  • E-3
  • F-2
  • G-4
  • Modern history is an extra one

Grammar

5B

a

  1. Nowadays I am used to going to bed early.
  2. When we visited our friends in London we couldn’t get used to drinking tea with breakfast.
  3. Sorry,I’m not used to staying up so late.I’m usually in bed by midnight
  4. There used to be a cinema in our village,but it closed down three years ago.
  5. Paul used to have a beard when he was younger.
  6. It’s not so bad. I am used to it now.
  7. Did you used to wear a uniform at your school?

b

  1. When Nathan started his first job, he couldn’t get used to getting up at 6 a.m.
  2. If you want to lose weight, than you will have to be used to eating less.
  3. I don’t like having dinner at 10.00 – I am not used to having a meal so late.
  4. When we were children we used to spend all day playing football in the park.
  5. Jasmine has been a nurse all her life so she is used to working nights.
  6. I’ve never worn glasses before, but I’ll have to get used to wearingthem.
  7. I didn’t recognize you! You used to have long hair, didn’t you?
  8. Amelia is an only child. She isn’t used to sharing her things.

5C

a

  1. Jamie insisted on paying for the meal.
  2. Lauren agreed to go out with him at the weekend.
  3. I warned Jane not to walk through the park at night.
  4. Jacob admitted stealing the woman’s handbag.
  5. The doctor advised Lily to give up coffee.
  6. Our boss persuaded Megan not to leave the company.
  7. Freya accused me of taking her pan.
  8. I apologized to Evie for not remembering her birthday.

b

  1. Ryan suggested going for a walk.
  2. My daughter refused to eat the vegetables.
  3. Sam’s neighbor threatened to call the police if he had any more parties.
  4. The children denied writing on the wall.
  5. Simon invited me to have dinner with him on Friday night?
  6. Molly reminded Jack to go to the dentist.

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